A study of bullying and its negative effects on individuals

The percentages of those reporting that they have neither experienced nor witnessed mistreatment were: A study by Einarsen and Skogstad indicates older employees tend to be more likely to be bullied than younger ones. But this is unproven and lacks evidence. The researchers suggest referring to workplace bullying as generic harassment along with other forms of non-specific harassment and this would enable employees to use less emotionally charged language and start a dialogue about their experiences rather than being repelled by the spectre of being labelled as a pathological predator or having to define their experiences as the victims of such a person.

A study of bullying and its negative effects on individuals

Their discussion of circumcision pp begins with a claim that because only 16 actually 9 according to their own table of the men aged were intact compared to 26 of the 81 older menthere was "a medical trend toward urging routine circumcision of the newborn male infant.

They also assume their sample of volunteers who were comfortable having sex in front of the experimenters was representative of the whole population of the US, and the 35 intact ones representative of all intact men.

They continue in prose famous for its obscurity and ugliness: The phallic fallacy that the uncircumcised male can establish ejaculatory control more effectively than his circumcised counterpart was accepted almost universally as biologic fact by both circumcised and uncircumcised male study subjects.

Magazines like Penthouse were suggesting that intact men with premature ejaculation might get circumcised to prevent it. All involved in this fallacy seem to have been unaware that the foreskin can retract. Masters and Johnson ignore the possiblity that the foreskin itself is involved in sexual sensation.

A limited number of the male study-subject population was exposed to a brief clinical experiment designed A study of bullying and its negative effects on individuals disprove [Real scientists aim to test, not prove or disprove] the false premise [If it had not yet been disproved, how did they know it was false?

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The 35 uncircumcised males were matched at random with circumcised study subjects of similar ages. Routine neurologic testing for both exteroceptive and light tactile discrimination were conducted on the ventral and dorsal surfaces of the penile body, with particular attention directed toward the glans.

It is unclear what "particular attention" means. It goes without saying that no attention was given to the foreskin, nor could it be with the circumcised "male study subjects".

Masters and Johnson didn't find what they weren't looking for. It had nothing to do with sex. They were apparently previously unaware that foreskins usually retract. This is linked to a later p discussion of "automanipulation" masturbation: Uncircumcised males have not been observed to concentrate specifically on the glans area of the penis.

They were playing with their much more sensitive foreskins but Masters and Johnson failed to notice that.

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Stroking techniques rarely move sufficiently distal on the shaft of the penis to encounter more than the coronal ridge of the glans even late in plateau phase just before ejaculation. Masters and Johnson's only interest in the foreskin in intercourse is whether it covers the glans: This is obviously a different picture from that occasioned by active intercourse.

With full vaginal containment the foreskin not tightly attached to subjacent tissue usually retracts freely from a major portion of the glans during active male coital thrusting before ejaculation.

A study of bullying and its negative effects on individuals

On this was based the whole of the case that "circumcision has no effect on sexual function" until further studies with flaws of their own see below were used to make the same claim.

Extensive neurological testing of such sensations as touch and pain sensitivity failed to reveal any differences in those with and without foreskins. Masters, 85, was in a nursing home in Arizona with Parkinson's disease and had no memory of the experiments.

He died a few weeks later. Collaborator Robert Kolodny said that he never once heard Masters or Johnson refer to this study, but thought Masters might have done it in collaboration with his physiologist at the time, Dr. Slater died years ago. Kolodny says most of the research notes from that period have been discarded, because of the rising costs of storage.

He guessed that "light tactile discrimination" meant single-point threshold sensitivity, although he had no idea what "exteroceptive discrimination" meant.

Ms Kimmel could not reach Virginia Johnson in St. Louis, but everyone she spoke to thought Johnson was most probably not involved in the study at all. In sharp contrast is the importance Masters and Johnson attach to the role of the clitoral hood female prepuce in intercourse: A mechanical traction develops on both sides of the clitoral hood of the minor labia subsequent to penile distention of the vaginal outlet.

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With active penile thrusting, the clitoral body is pulled downward toward the pudendum [Masters and Johnson define the "pudendum" as "the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and the vestibule of the vagina". When the penile shaft is in the withdrawal phase of active coital stroking, traction on the clitoral hood is somewhat relieved and the body and glans return to normal pudendal-overhang positioning If the vaginal outlet is too expanded to allow strong traction on the minor-labial hood by the thrusting penis, minimal clitoral excursion will occur and little if any secondary stimulation will develop.

In response to an enquiry about the role of the clitoral hood, "Charlou" at RichardDawkins. Direct stimulation of my clitoris concentrates the sensation too intensely for me, particularly close to and during clitoral orgasm.

Manipulation over and around the hood and labia is both exquisitely pleasurable and extends the orgasm. Often controlling and delaying the clitoral orgasm this way generates a deeper internal orgasm. A more recent study makes the same mistake, perhaps more glaringly. Abstract of a paper presented at a meeting of the American Urological Association in Chicago on April 29, Controversy continues to exist about the effect of circumcision on penile sensitivity and sexual satisfaction.Traditionally favored by private and parochial institutions, school uniforms are being adopted by US public schools in increasing numbers.

About one in five US public schools (21%) required students to wear uniforms during the school year, up from one in eight in THE IMPACT OF WORKPLACE BULLYING ON INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANISATIONAL WELL-BEING IN Before going on to discuss the literature on bullying, this study will first examine and explore the literature on stress and coping, and the breathlessness”.

Thus, stress can have negative effects on a person’s body which may in turn, spill . EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. As co-chairs of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Select Task Force on the Study of Harassment in the Workplace ("Select Task Force"), we have spent the last 18 months examining the myriad and complex issues associated with harassment in the workplace.

Workplace bullying: a global overview Ellen Cobb. Workplace bullying is a global problem affecting all professions and sectors.

This overview examines the range of legislation already in place to address bullying as well as laws we can expect to see enacted in the near future. Feb 10,  · Adverse consequences of being bullied. Until fairly recently, most studies on the effects of bullying were cross-sectional or just included brief follow-up periods, making it impossible to identify whether bullying .

workplace bullying, (b) examined the specific types of mistreatment and negative acts experienced by targets, (c) determined physical and mental stress associated with bullying, and (d) revealed a relationship between workplace bullying and its effect .

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