An introduction to the geography and culture of scotland

Scots law Scotland retains Scots Lawits own unique legal system, based on Roman lawwhich combines features of both civil law and common law.

An introduction to the geography and culture of scotland

See Article History Alternative Titles: Dun Eideann, Duneideann Edinburgh, Gaelic Dun Eideann, capital city of Scotlandlocated in southeastern Scotland with its centre near the southern shore of the Firth of Forth, an arm of the North Sea that thrusts westward into the Scottish Lowlands.

The city and its immediate surroundings constitute an independent council area. The city and most of the council area, including the busy port of Leith on the Firth of Forth, lie within the historic county of Midlothianbut the council area also includes an area in the northwest, around South Queensferry, in the historic county of West Lothian.

Edinburgh has been a military stronghold, the capital of an independent country, and a centre of intellectual activity. Although it has repeatedly experienced the vicissitudes of fortune, the city has always renewed itself.

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Today it is the seat of the Scottish Parliament and the Scottish Executive, and it remains a major centre for finance, law, tourism, education, and cultural affairs. Area council area, square miles square km.

Character of the city Although Edinburgh absorbed surrounding villages and the Firth of Forth ports between andits aesthetic and political heart still lies in its small historic core, comprising the Old Town and the New Town.

The Old Town, built up in the Middle Ages when the fear of attack was constant, huddles high on the Castle Rock overlooking the surrounding plain. The New Town, in contrast, spreads out in a magnificent succession of streets, crescents, and terraces. Historically, its citizens have also been capable of great passion, especially in matters royal or religious.

An introduction to the geography and culture of scotland

Infor example, a mob spurred by the fiery Protestant preacher John Knox tried to break into the private chapel in the Palace of Holyroodhouse, where MaryQueen of Scots —67newly returned from Francewas attending a Roman Catholic mass.

In a riot in the cathedral of St. In the burgh nearly lost its royal charter following the lynching of John Porteous, captain of the city guard. The Porteous riots and lynching were a type of violent gesture common to the history of most old cities. Yet, even in this moment of deranged passion, the city manifested its complex character: A city long renowned for a somewhat inflexible respectability—when West Princes Street Gardens were turned over to the general public insmoking was forbidden—Edinburgh concurrently maintained a fascinating netherworld of ribaldry and drunkenness.

A poet, jurist, or novelist of sufficient distinction might succeed in inhabiting both worlds. One who clearly did was William Brodie, a member of respectable society—deacon of the Incorporation of Wrights and Masons and a town councillor—who by night was the mastermind behind a gang of burglars.

With the subsequent relapse of the city into a more provincial role, such noted eccentrics became virtually extinct. Landscape City site Edinburgh occupies some 7 miles 11 km of north-facing slope between the Pentland Hills and the broad Firth of Forth estuary, where it merges with the once-independent seaport of Leith.

Upthrusts of lava punctuate this slope. The valleys between these striking hills were scoured deep and clean by glacial action in the Pleistocene Epoch. Edinburgh has been built on top of and around these obstacles so that the nearer one comes to the city centre, the more spectacular is the juxtaposition of natural and built environmentwith terraces of stone confronting soaring thrust.

It stands feet 76 metres above the valley floor and is crowned by the famous Edinburgh Castle, which, subtly floodlit every night, stirs even the habituated townsfolk.

Along the crest of this tail, and down its steep sides, the Old Town was built from the 12th century onward. Some feet metres north of the Castle Rock, across the valley that is now Princes Street Gardens, lies the New Town, a district that was planned and built in successive phases between and Its design was overly regular to begin with, but later developments—as can be seen at the west end of Princes Street—paid more respect to natural contours and softened the regimentation of the right angle with curves and crescents.

These villages, which sprang up largely as industrial centres with paper and textile mills, are now embedded in the 19th-century matrix of the town, providing fashionable, bijou residences.

Climate Edinburgh has a mild climate. Its proximity to the sea mitigates temperature extremes. The prevailing easterly winds are often cold but relatively dry; warmer southwesterly winds coming off the North Atlantic Current often bring rain.

Annual precipitation is moderate, averaging 27 inches mmand is evenly distributed throughout the year. Edinburgh lacks prolonged sunshine: But its ever-changing cloudscape partly compensates for this. City layout Until the late 18th century, Edinburgh followed a common European pattern by continually renewing itself on its original site, and the lack of space for outward expansion compelled each successive phase to conform to the original layout.

Subsequently, when expansion became possible, the town quickly broke free of its medieval mold, and each new development was built adjacent to, rather than on top of, its predecessor. Consequently, the soaring vertical lines of the Old Town confront the expansive horizontal ones of the Georgian New Town to the north, and both are encircled by acres of individually distinct Victorian suburbs and finally by a ring of 20th-century construction that makes its way toward hills and sea.

King James II reigned —60 originally had the lake created from swampland as a defense against attack. Even when it was drained and the land was firmed, access to the north had to await the ability of civil engineers to span the valley with a bridge.

In the centuries between the founding of the Old Town and the beginning of the New Town, Edinburgh eased itself down the southern flank of the moraine. Its original markets were all held along the High Street.Edinburgh and Glasgow are the cultural capitals of Scotland.

Scotland has a social democratically inclined middle class with a strong sense of its roots in the industrial working class and the formation of the welfare state; there is a widespread belief that egalitarianism is inherent in the national culture. (sub-field of human geography) the study of spatial variations among cultural groups and the spatial functioning of a society Population Geography the study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, compositon, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places. Scotland’s geography and landscape Scotland is a country in Europe and is part of the island of Great Britain (Europe’s largest island) alongside England, Wales and Northern Ireland. This lush beautiful country is bursting with green spaces, lush forests, towering mountains and vast lochs (the Scottish word for lakes!).

Among the cultural institutions achieving high international standing are the Royal Scottish National Orchestra, the Scottish Opera, and the Scottish Ballet, all based in Glasgow.

14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE The Scots have a particularly distinguished tradition in the realm of literature, especially poetry and novels.

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Scotland's most famous poet, Robert Burns, lived and wrote in the late eighteenth century. Lord Byron (–), another Scottish poet, was born and educated in . (sub-field of human geography) the study of spatial variations among cultural groups and the spatial functioning of a society Population Geography the study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, compositon, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places.

British life and culture - England, Scotland and Wales. Facts and information about the UK Wales. London. Geography of Britain. History of Britain. Economy. Royalty. UK: General Information. Introduction to Great Britain. When was the United Kingdom established as a country?

Where can I find information on the Geography of Britain. BRITISH CULTURE Geography Living in Britain Education AN INTRODUCTION WARM - UP What do you know about the geography of the United Scotland: Its geography is varied, with lowlands in the south and east and highlands in the north and west.

Scotland Time-lapse video of Scotland's countryside and coast, with a glimpse of Edinburgh. Carl Finkbeiner/grupobittia.com Scotland Tour Scotland in the Royal Scotsman, a luxury train.

Scots - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage