Formation and evolution of the Solar System Astronomers have discovered nearly planetary systems with multiple planets.
Formation and evolution of the Solar System Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun.
As Jupiter came toward the inner Solar System, in what theorists call the grand tack hypothesisgravitational tugs and pulls occurred causing a series of collisions between the super-Earths as their orbits began to overlap. Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth.
It is the largest of the four giant planets in the Solar System and hence its largest planet.
The average density of Jupiter, 1. A helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, so the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms.
The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methanewater vaporammoniaand silicon -based compounds. There are also traces of carbonethanehydrogen sulfideneonoxygenphosphineand sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun.
This depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet. The Great Red Spot is roughly the same size as Earth.
So, for example, the extrasolar planet HD b has a mass of 0. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve.
The core is often described as rockybut its detailed composition is unknown, as are the properties of materials at the temperatures and pressures of those depths see below.
Assuming it did exist, it may have shrunk as convection currents of hot liquid metallic hydrogen mixed with the molten core and carried its contents to higher levels in the planetary interior. A core may now be entirely absent, as gravitational measurements are not yet precise enough to rule that possibility out entirely.
The Juno missionwhich arrived in July is expected to further constrain the values of these parameters for better models of the core. Physically, there is no clear boundary—the gas smoothly becomes hotter and denser as one descends. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions.
These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer.
Supporting the idea of water clouds are the flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on Earth. The exact makeup remains uncertain, but the substances are thought to be phosphorus, sulfur or possibly hydrocarbons.
The zones are formed when rising convection cells form crystallizing ammonia that masks out these lower clouds from view. Convection within the interior of the planet transports more energy to the poles, balancing out the temperatures at the cloud layer.The Jovian planets also have about the same rotational characteristics and all have rings around them.
Jupiter, the first of the jovian planets, reigns supreme throughout the solar system. Named after the Roman god Jove, the ruler of Olympus; Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun and is also the largest planet in the Earth’s solar system.
The atmosphere near the surface of Jupiter is made of about 88 to 92% hydrogen, 8 to 12% helium, and 1% other gases.  The lower atmosphere is so heated and the pressure so high that helium changes to liquid. The atmosphere of Jupiter is made up of water, ammonia, methane and carbon.
Scientists feel that there are three different layers of clouds. The wind activity on Jupiter is volatile, and moves in jet streams parallel to the equator. Jupiter’s Atmosphere It’s hard to explain what the atmosphere of Jupiter is, since the planet is 90% hydrogen and 10% helium.
Here on . JUPITER Jupiter the fifth planet from the sun and by far the largest, Jupiter is more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined ( times Earth. What we see when we look at this planet as the tops of the clouds high in their atmospheres slightly above one atmosphere.
A flare will give off intense X-rays and ultraviolet light, which travels to Earth in about 8 minutes. But also given off is an intense burst of high energy particles which travel to the Earth at speeds much less than the speed of light.