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A fruitful synergy Edwina L. Rissland aKevin D. Ashley bR. Loui c a Department of Computer Science. University of Massachusetts at Amhent. This special issue repotts on a range of projects, from those where the law mot ivates fundamental research and whose results reach beyond the legal domain, to those that partake of the benefits of techniques and wisdom from AI as a whole.
For instance, projects tackling legal argument have not only created programs that produce legal arguments but also led to insights and ad vances in the logic of argumentation.
Projects with an applications bent have often provided insights about the limitations and nuances of existing techniques, and have served as the catal ysts for devel oping new approaches. For instance, harnessing models of legal argument to teach l aw students how to argue has led to refi nements to and extensions of the models.
In fact, the work on Case-Based Reasoning CBR done in the AI and Law communit y provided one of the most important streams of results that contributed to the birth of that area in the mids.
Currently, work on legal argumentation is having a similar impact on the international non-standard l ogic and argumentati on communities. AI and Law is much more than an applications area.
Its concerns much upon issues at the very heart of AI: For the AI researcher interested in symbolic methods - or methods of whatever stripe - that are focused on providing explanations and justifications, AI and Law is an excellent arena. No matter how a reasoner arrives at a legal answer it must be explainedjustified, compared to and contrasted with alternatives.
For the researcher interested in topics like negotiation, decision-making, e-commerce, natural language, information retrieval and extraction, and data mining, AI and Law is a rich source of problems and inspiration.
Based on his experiences with this early system, he began his research program to address problems of open texture and develop deep models of legal concepts, like stock ownership in the context of tax law. Both of these lines of research are on-going.
InCarole Hafner published her doctoral research on a system that used an AI approach to improve legal information retrieval IR in the domain of negotiable instruments; it used semantic net representations to push beyond purely keyword-based approaches.
In the s, work in AI and Law intensified tremendously. Marek Sergot, Robert Kowalski and their colleagues at Imperial College London used logic programming to model part of the British Nationality Act, a large, self-contained statute; in an important paper in the Communications of the ACM, they reflected on their project and discussed a few problematic aspects of the rule-based approach: Waterman and Peterson had encountered similar problems.
The project at Imperial College also demonstrated how such an approach could be used to help "debug" a statute while it is being drafted, for instance, by finding rule conflicts and ambiguities. The use of executable logical models especially in PROLOG was extended to larger, more complex statutes in a large collaborative project centered on UK welfare benefits law.
By the mid s these techniques would be sufficiently mature to form the basis of operational systems used in local and central administrative governmental agencies, especially in the Netherlands and Australia.
In the early s, the Istituto per Ia Documentazione Giuridica the "IDG" in Florence, originally founded inbegan, under the directorship of Antonio Martino, to expand its activities to include AI techniques and to host a series of international conferences on expert systems and law.
It drew attention to the fact well-known in the law that one cannot reason by rules alone, and that in response to failure, indeterminacy, or simply the desire for a sanity check, one examines examples.
Her work sought a principled computational model of the distinction between "hard" and "easy" cases, much discussed in jurisprudence.
While progress continued on rule-based reasoning RBR systems in the s, there began to emerge a community of AI researchers who focused on reasoning with cases and analogies-that is, case-based reasoning.AI and Law: A fruitful synergy.
Edwina L. Rissland a, Kevin D. Ashley b, R. P. Loui c. a Department of Computer Science. University of Massachusetts at Amhent. Amhent. MA , USA b Graduate Program in lntelligelll Systems and School of Law. University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh. A DISSERTATION ON THE ORIGIN AND FOUNDATION OF THE INEQUALITY OF MANKIND.
IT is of man that I have to speak; and the question I am investigating shows me that it is to men that I must address myself: for questions of this sort are not asked by those who are afraid to honour truth. I shall then confidently uphold the cause of humanity before the wise men who invite me to do so, and shall .
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