Finnish translation thanks to Oskari Laine, Helsinki, Finland. Spanish Translation provided by the WindowsHelper Team Introduction Today, most people don't need to know how a computer works. Most people can simply turn on a computer or a mobile phone and point at some little graphical object on the display, click a button or swipe a finger or two, and the computer does something.
Programmable devices have existed at least as far back as AD, when the automata of Al-Jazari were programmable, via pegs and camsto play various rhythms and drum patterns;  and the Jacquard loom could produce entirely different weaves by changing the "program" - a series of pasteboard cards with holes punched in them.
In the s Herman Hollerith invented the concept of storing data in machine-readable form. However, with the concept of the stored-program computers introduced inboth programs and data were stored and manipulated in the same way in computer memory.
Machine code was the language of early programs, written in the instruction set of the particular machine, often in binary notation. Assembly languages were soon developed that let the programmer specify instruction in a text format, e.
However, because an assembly language is little more than a different notation for a machine language, any two machines with different instruction sets also have different assembly languages.
High-level languages allow the programmer to write programs in terms that are syntactically richer, and more capable of abstracting the code, making it targetable to varying machine instruction sets via compilation declarations and heuristics. They harness the power of computers to make programming easier  by allowing programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula using infix notation e.
FORTRANthe first widely used high-level language to have a functional implementation which permitted the abstraction of reusable blocks of code, came out in  and many other languages were soon developed - in particular, COBOL aimed at commercial data processing, and Lisp for computer research.
Programs were mostly still entered using punched cards or paper tape. See computer programming in the punch card era. By the late s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough that programs could be created by typing directly into the computers.
Text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more easily than with punched cards. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Quality requirements[ edit ] Whatever the approach to development may be, the final program must satisfy some fundamental properties.
The following properties are among the most important: This depends on conceptual correctness of algorithms, and minimization of programming mistakes, such as mistakes in resource management e.
This includes situations such as incorrect, inappropriate or corrupt data, unavailability of needed resources such as memory, operating system services and network connections, user error, and unexpected power outages.
Such issues can make or break its success even regardless of other issues. This depends on differences in the programming facilities provided by the different platforms, including hardware and operating system resources, expected behavior of the hardware and operating system, and availability of platform specific compilers and sometimes libraries for the language of the source code.
Good practices  during initial development make the difference in this regard. This quality may not be directly apparent to the end user but it can significantly affect the fate of a program over the long term. Measure of system resources a program consumes processor time, memory space, slow devices such as disks, network bandwidth and to some extent even user interaction:Process Writing.
Writing software that teaches students the writing process. In each software program, students choose from a menu of topics, develop an idea, and create their own original work. Before you start writing a computer program, first take four critical steps to design it.
By doing so, you don’t waste time writing a computer program that doesn’t work or that solves the wrong problem and isn’t worth trying to salvage afterward. The 5-Step Writing Process: From Brainstorming to Publishing.
Every writer follows his or her own writing process. Often the process is a routine that comes naturally and is not a step-by-step guide to which writers refer. The 5-Step Writing Process: From Brainstorming to Publishing.
Every writer follows his or her own writing process. Often the process is a routine that comes naturally and is not a step-by-step guide to which writers refer.
Feb 26, · For much of society, computer programming is foreign and seems challenging. However, following the process of coding, makes computer programming simpler and easier to understand.
The first step to producing a quality program is to identify and understand the problem at hand. Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms' accuracy and resource consumption, and the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language (commonly referred to as coding  ).