Why it might work Stages of the Interview A leading question is a question, usually asked during the course of a police investigation, which unwittingly has an effect on the recall of information. Much of the research in the area has been carried out by Elizabeth Loftus.
Anxiety is a state of apprehension, worry or fear. Anxiety causes intense stress at the time of the incident. This means that the eyewitness may have difficulty encoding the information during the acquisition stage of the memory process.
Loftus The role of anxiety in eyewitness testimony Aim: To find out whether anxiety in eyewitness testimony affected later identification. Exposed to one of two conditions: Overheard a low key discussion in a lab about an equipment failure.
A person them emerged from the laboratory holding a pen in grease covered hands. Overheard a heated and hostile debate between people in the lab. After the sound of breaking glass and crashing chairs.
A man came out of the lab holding a paper knife covered in blood. Participants were then asked to recall the person from 50 photos. It was concluded that a weapon focuses the attention and narrows the focus of attention, resulting in accurate central details but less accurate peripheral details.
Watched a violent short film where a boy was shot in the head or 2.
Watched a non-violent short film of a crime Participants were less accurate in recall when they saw the violent short film than those who watched the non-violent movie. This demonstrates support for Loftus as it shows that when people witness anxiety provoking situations they are less likely to recall accurately.
Some were onlookers and some were bank clerks who had been directly threatened by the robbers. It was found that: There recall lasted even after 15 months. A02 Evaluation of research into anxiety and eyewitness testimony One weakness is that the majority of research into anxiety and eyewitness testimony is laboratory based.
This means that the tasks may lack mundane realism. The tasks are not usually expected on real life, for instance you would not be normally asked to recall a short film.
This means that the participants may not be focused on the details as they would be in a real life crime. In addition to this laboratory research is conducted in an artificial situation, this means that it may lack ecological validity.
Furthermore the participants may recognise the expectations of the research and may demonstrate demand characteristics. This shows that in real life eyewitness testimony anxiety can heighten the accuracy of recall Christian and Hubbinette, whereas Loftus suggested that anxiety particularly posed by a weapon may decrease recall accuracy.
Thirdly, anxiety research raises ethical issues. The participants in Loftus were deceived as they were led to believe it was a real situation, this it may have caused psychological harm to the participant. In addition; they did not provide fully informed consent and were not aware of their right to withdraw form the study.
The researchers attempted to over come this by fully debriefing participants at the end of the study and allowing them the right to withdraw.
One strength of Loftus is that the research is easily replicable as it was an experiment that maintained high control over the extraneous variables.
A second strength is that Loftus uses a scientific method, this means that we can state that the IV effects the DV. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates.The present study investigates the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance of Iranian university students in a Medical university.
The Difference Between Stress & Anxiety In many places today we hear of “stress and anxiety;” two terms often linked, used interchangeably, and virtually, in everyday language, meaning the same thing. Study - EWT flashcards from becca c. on StudyBlue. Study - EWT flashcards from becca c.
on StudyBlue. no relationship between accuracy of identification and witnesses confidence, confident even when incorrect, 80% tried to pick someone out of the line up even if the target wasn't there. summarise the effects of arousal. Everyone experiences stress and anxiety at one time or another. The difference between them is that stress is a response to a threat in a situation.
Anxiety is a . Start studying EWT - better. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. EWT is affected by the anxiety from the weapon focus effect and causes less accurate recall. Relationship between anxiety & accuracy of EWT. Shows why there may be contradictions between findings.
September, Volume 1, Issue 2 The Relationship Between Anxiety and Performance: A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective Miguel Humara, M.A. ABSTRACT.