History[ edit ] Antecedent theoretical developments[ edit ] The Human Resources field evolved first in 18th century in Europe. It built on a simple idea by Robert Owen and Charles Babbage during the industrial revolution. These men concluded that people were crucial to the success of an organization. They expressed the thought that the well-being of employees led to perfect work; without healthy workers, the organization would not survive.
There is immense diversity and rapid evolution of technologies with relevance to or impact on the life sciences enterprise. Their impact s may be beneficial or detrimental depending on how these tools and technologies are applied. The combination of nanotechnology and biotechnology is one such example of a synergistic combination.
Many of the technologies discussed in this chapter create novel opportunities for scientists and others to explore aspects of biological and chemical diversity that cannot be accessed through natural mechanisms Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences.
The National Academies Press. Given the unpredictable nature of technological change, it is difficult if not impossible to describe in definite terms what the global technology landscape will look like in 5 to 10 years, both with regard to the emergence of technologies with dual-use applications and the global geography of future breakthroughs.
New, unexpected discoveries and technological applications in RNAi and synthetic biology arose even during the course of deliberations by this committee.
If this report, with the same charge, were prepared even a year or two in the future, many of the details presented in this chapter would likely be different. These shared characteristics are based on common purposes, common conceptual underpinnings, and common technical enabling platforms.
Thus, the technologies outlined in this chapter are categorized according to a classification scheme devised by the committee and organized around four groupings: Acquisition of novel biological or molecular diversity.
These are technologies driven by efforts to acquire or synthesize novel biological or molecular diversity, or a greater range of specificity, so that the user can then select what is useful from the large, newly-acquired diversity pool.
The goal is to create collections of molecules with greater breadth of diversity than found so far in nature, as well as with types of diversity that may not exist in nature. Technologies in this category include those dedicated toward DNA synthesis; the generation of new chemical diversity i.
All of these technologies require a subsequent selection step, such that molecules, macromolecular complexes, or even microbes with the desired properties can be identified and isolated from a large and very diverse pool of possibilities.
Toward this end, new high-throughput screening including the use of robotics and advanced information management systems have become critical enabling technologies. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: These are technologies that involve deliberate efforts to generate novel but predetermined and specific biological or molecular diversity.
The use of these technologies begins with a more defined, preexisting understanding of the desired endproduct and its molecular features. One then synthesizes or re-engineers the desired product or its components.
These are technologies driven by efforts to gain a more complete understanding of complex biological systems and an ability to manipulate such systems. Limitations of the classification scheme include the fact that it is based on a relatively small number of relevant technologies i.
As a reflection of the latter dilemma, the committee found that some of the technologies discussed in this chapter could have been classified in more than one category. The category assignment in these cases was guided by the nature of the particular applications that the committee had in mind when considering each of the relevant technologies.
The examples below serve as a finite set of future technologies that represent and illustrate each of the four categories. For each example the following issues are addressed: The coverage of these issues for each of the technologies is not intended to be exhaustive. The technologies covered in this chapter include not only those that open up new possibilities for the creation of novel or enhanced biological agents but also those that expose new vulnerabilities i.
Details are limited to those necessary for a clear explanation of the plausibility of use. Thus, is there any reason to think that it might be possible to create a more successful biological agent?
The kinds of basic biological diversity found in nature today, or those that have potentially evolved in the natural world and been tested for fitness over time, may have been and are still limited by certain natural constraints, including available building blocks—nucleotides and amino acids; natural mechanisms for generating genetic diversity; and, the strength and nature of selective pressures over time.
Nor has there been enough time over the history of the earth for nature to have explored more than a tiny fraction of the diversity that is possible. In addition, some investigators are creating unnatural nucleic acids and amino acids in order to test and explore possible structural constraints on molecules with biological function.
All of these approaches result in novel types of genetic or molecular diversity that then require assessment of functional potential. This assessment typically takes the form of a screening process i. While the technological processes of assessing and selecting molecules of interest—high-throughput screening and selection—have some features in common with the next category of technologies i.
DNA Synthesis Description DNA synthesis is a technology that enables the de novo generation of genetic sequences that specifically program cells for the expression of a given protein.
It is not new, but technical enhancements continue to increase the speed, ease, and accuracy with which larger and larger sequences can be generated chemically. By the early s, scientists had demonstrated that they could engineer synthetic genes. Our ability to synthesize short oligonucleotides typically 10 to 80 base pairs in length rapidly and accurately has been an essential enabling technology for a myriad of advances, not the least of which has been the sequencing of the human genome.
The past few years have seen remarkable technological advances in this field, particularly with respect to the de novo synthesis of increasingly longer DNA constructs. The chemical synthesis and ligation of large segments of a DNA template, followed by enzymatic transcription of RNA led to the de novo creation of the poliovirus genome in about 7, nucleotides in lengthfrom which the infectious, virulent virus was res- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation:Technological change (TC), technological development, technological achievement, or technological progress is the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes.
Technological Advancement and the Effect on the Ecosystem By Andrew Gellert; Updated April 23, but technological advances that improve production, such as pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers, can also harm the environment.
Modern fertilizers increase yields, but they linger in the local environment, damaging soil and. Abstract. The ubiquity of frustrating, unhelpful software interfaces has motivated decades of research into “Human-Computer Interaction.” In this paper, I suggest that .
Questions on Organizational Behavior. Prepared by Dr. Stephen Hartman, School of Management, New York Institute of Technology. 1. How have American companies suffered in recent years? MACRO FORCES FOR TOURISM CHANGES Evolution and growth of tourism as an industry.
Technological advances during World War II saw the development of the jet aircraft, which reduced transit time, increased accessibility and increased the mobility of tourists.
Macro forces that influence the historic and future demand for tourism. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.