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Page 11 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. The many potent forces in these environments—competition, technological innovations, professionalism, and demographics, to name a few—shape the process of organizational adaptation.
As a result, organizations may shift focus, modify goals, restructure roles and responsibilities, and develop new forms. Adaptive efforts such as these may be said to fall under the general rubric of redesign.
In this chapter, we examine aspects of organizational environments that research and practice suggest are changing and are causing managers to redesign their organizations.
We discuss the effects of increases in scientific knowledge, societal trends in professional roles, and changing technologies and demographic trends on organizations.
We then examine several bases for organizational design and redesign: Finally, we consider new organizational forms as a response to environmental change. Page 12 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Organizations that are not able to adapt quickly enough to maintain their legitimacy or the resources they need to survive either cease to exist or become assimilated into other organizations.
Perhaps the most noteworthy change in the environment for business organizations has been the dramatic shift in the developed world from an industrial to an information economy.
Infor the first time ever, companies spent more money on computing and communications gear than on industrial, mining, farm, and construction equipment combined.
In the s, approximately half of the workers in industrialized countries were involved in making things; by the yearit is estimated that no developed country will have more than one-eighth of its workforce in the traditional roles of making and moving goods Drucker, But this is only the most obvious of the trends that are redefining the nature of contemporary organizations.
Population ecology, as its name implies, focuses on the changing nature of populations of organizations Hannan and Freeman, ; Hannan and Carroll, Institutional theory focuses on the need for organizations to maintain legitimacy with societal norms and values, often embodied in governments, professions, and trade associations Meyer and Rowan, ; Powell and DiMaggio, ; Scott,; Zucker, Both of these perspectives are fruitful.
They tend, however, to deemphasize the influences of management action and leadership in organizational change but see Hannan and Freeman, ; Suchman, Thus, whereas organizational environments and processes are often sources of change, we adopt the strategic choice point of view Child,the idea that organizations vary in their choice of responses, the timing of their responses, and the means and effectiveness of executing their responses, and that these phenomena are managerially determined to a great extent.
Some of the most powerful forces identified by the business press and organizational literature that are motivating managers to redesign their organizations are the increase in scientific knowledge, changes in professional roles, the technology explosion, and the changing demographics of the American workforce.
Page 13 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This environmental change is both long-term and antecedent. Consider, as an indicator of scientific knowledge, reports of scientific findings. From tothe number of scientific articles published per day grew from 3, to 8, a percent increase Huppes, This increase is only a snapshot measure of the long-term trend in the generation of scientific knowledge.
To get an idea of the longer trend, consider the accelerating increase in the number of scientific journals recorded by De Solla Price The first 2 scientific journals appeared in the mid-seventeenth century; by the middle of the eighteenth century there were 10 scientific journals, by aboutby about 1, Recently, Goodstein stated that there are currently about 40, These increases in scientific knowledge can be attributed to previous increases—knowledge feeding on itself—to increases in the size of the scientific community, and to increases in effective means of distributing scientific knowledge.
Although exponential growth cannot continue forever, this general pattern of rapid growth is likely to continue into the intermediate future. One reason to expect continued growth in scientific knowledge is that increased capability and application of advanced communications technologies will greatly increase the availability of whatever knowledge is produced.
Even now, a weekday edition of The New York Times contains more information than the average person was likely to come across in a lifetime during the seventeenth century, and it is estimated that today the amount of information available to the average person doubles every five years Wurman, In addition, reflecting on advances in information technologies during the last 50 years makes clear that 1 such technologies are still in their early stages of effectiveness or adoption and 2 other, better, technologies are in the making.
Consequently, the availability of existing knowledge will increase as the technologies mature and become more widely used.the need to revise and update the National Policy on Education once more to ensure that the education system meets the needs of a new democracy.
The entire education system would benefit from coherent national policy development. organizations must continue to evolve in order for both to thrive. Rapid innovation and adaptation to change require a collaborative, interdependent culture and solutions that cut across function, region, and.
The main problem in the study of "problems" and the organizations attempting to solve them is that the environmental context of organizations is changing, at an increasing rate, and towards increasing complexity. In many cases, the changed texture of the environment is not recognized by the.
The elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaigns.  Some commentators have noted the necessity of bureaucracies in modern society.
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This leadership model is effective in bureaucratic organizations because it is task focused Ironically, they may also become angry that change is needed, because of the resistance that is a normal and expected part of the.
An organization is a group of two or more people working together to achieve a common set of goals. The relationships among positions within an organization can be illustrated by means of an organization chart.